In the midst of looming smokestacks from a nearby coal power plant, Edy Suryana’s village grapples with perpetual grey skies, ash-filled air, and a lingering stench. Living in the shadows of northern Java’s power plant, Suryana and fellow villagers witness health woes, attributing them to the omnipresent smog.
Experts highlight a surge in respiratory illnesses and deaths in northern Java, particularly Jakarta, fueled by coal-fired plants, vehicle emissions, trash burning, and industries. Struggling with the balancing act of industrialization’s energy demand and carbon emission reduction, Indonesia faces a critical challenge spotlighted at the upcoming COP28. Jakarta’s polluted air, a cocktail of pollutants, prompted demands for governmental intervention.
Pollution Problems Mounting
The smog-laden atmosphere, a poignant backdrop to daily life, triggered health crises for many residents. As the United Nations emphasizes climate concerns, the side effects of coal-fired power plants come under scrutiny, adding urgency to cut emissions. Indonesia grapples with the complex task of meeting industrialization needs while safeguarding public health.
Suryana’s personal narrative underscores the human toll, losing loved ones to lung problems exacerbated by polluted air. In 2019, his daughter’s battle with tuberculosis intensified in the midst of worsening air quality.
IQAir consistently ranks Jakarta among the world’s most polluted cities, with residents facing respiratory challenges, itchy eyes, and sore throats. Vital Strategies’ research estimates that air pollution potentially contributed to over 10,000 deaths and 5,000 hospitalizations in Jakarta in 2019.
The perilous pollution levels force residents indoors, yet not everyone can escape. Street vendors like Misnar, grappling with pneumonia worsened by prolonged outdoor exposure, face a dilemma between health and livelihood. As Jakarta witnesses a surge in pneumonia cases, the burden on the healthcare system amplifies.
How is this affecting Indonesia?
The economic impact of pervasive smog is profound, potentially causing annual health-related losses exceeding $25.2 billion. Health analyst Ginanjar Syuhada emphasizes the prolonged health implications, with working-age individuals experiencing lingering coughs and colds. Pulmonologist Feni Fitriani Taufik notes a shift in respiratory symptoms, highlighting the need for comprehensive solutions.
However, addressing Jakarta’s pollution conundrum proves intricate. Coal emissions, a significant contributor to air pollution, present a dilemma, balancing affordability with environmental impact. Indonesia’s commitment to emission reduction clashes with the reality of coal’s dominance in its energy landscape.
Efforts to promote electric vehicles face challenges of slow adoption, limited public transport alternatives, and insufficient infrastructure. Tackling pollution demands a multi-faceted approach, including stringent regulations for industries and factories.
As Jakarta grapples with the visible and invisible consequences of smog, the intricate web of socio-economic, environmental, and health challenges underscores the need for holistic strategies. Balancing progress and environmental responsibility becomes imperative for Jakarta’s residents, emphasizing the human cost of unchecked pollution.